Report: Rule of Law in Poland 2020: International and European responses to the crisis

Share

Everything you need to know about the rule of law in Poland

More

In its second report, the Civil Development Forum (FOR) evaluates measures used by the European Union, Council of Europe and other international actors to deal with the rule of law breakdown in Poland



The ongoing negotiations between the EU institutions and members states about how to link funding to respect for rule of law might lead to another tool ensure that member state comply with the treaties. In this report, Rule of Law in Poland co-founder, Civil Development Forum (FOR), evaluates previous activities and tools employed by the European Union, other international organisations and foreign bodies regarding the rule of law crisis in Poland.

 

The report deals mostly with the political and judicial measures adopted by the European Union, due to the profound impact of the situation in Poland to the bloc and the broad array of tools used against it, but also refers to the Council of Europe, the United Nations and its agendas, and private or unilateral responses to the crisis. It further elaborates on the assessment of the tools deployed by the said actors and, lastly, offers recommendations on how to deal with the rule of law crisis in the most efficient way.

 

In the first part, FOR analysed the current state of the rule of law from domestic and comparative perspectives. It explained the reasons behind the key Law and Justice policies regarding the justice system and presented main changes in the courts and prosecution service since 2015.

 

Executive Summary: 

  • As a member of various international and European organisations, Poland is bound by the requirement to respect the rule of law so as to effectively fulfil its commitments and ensure sincere cooperation between all member states.
  • The crisis of the rule of law in Poland endangers the proper functioning of the international organisations Poland belongs to. That risk depends directly on the level and scope of integration and the importance of mutual commitments.
  • The European Union has not sufficiently used its tools to combat the crisis. While judicial measures employed by the Court of Justice effectively prevented the situation from getting worse, political tools, such as Article 7(1), have been watered down and require improvements.
  • Despite the limited array of measures at the disposal of the Council of Europe and the United Nations, they form an important basis for judicial bodies and contribute to the prevention of a crisis. In particular, the opinions of the Venice Commission and the summary of the UN Special Rapporteur on the Independence of Judges and Lawyers provide independent and reliable assessments of the state of play in Poland in light of international standards.
  • Moreover, tools employed by individual actors, in particular international organisations of judges and lawyers, allow the international community to familiarise itself with Poland’s situation, and provide reliable sources in specific areas of the crisis, e.g. the role of the National Council of the Judiciary.
  • It is highly recommended that international bodies, most importantly the European Union, realise the fact that time is of the essence when it comes to deal with the rule of law crisis in Poland. Since infringement actions before the Court of Justice have been the most efficient measures so far, it is important that other tools facilitate them by providing up-to-date and reliable evidence, also covering new developments in Poland.

 

Download full report:Rule of Law 2020

 

 

The publication is supported by the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. The Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom is not responsible for the content of this publication, or for any use that may be made of it. The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) alone. These views do not necessarily reflect those of the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom.



Author


Everything you need to know about the rule of law in Poland


More

Published

November 20, 2020

Tags

Supreme CourtDisciplinary Chamberdisciplinary proceedingsrule of lawjudicial independencePolandConstitutional TribunalEuropean CommissionjudgesZbigniew ZiobroCourt of Justice of the EUNational Council of the JudiciaryCourt of JusticeEuropean UnionAndrzej DudaIgor TuleyaMałgorzata Manowskadisciplinary systemMinister of JusticeCommissioner for Human Rightspresidential electionsjudiciarypreliminary rulingsdemocracyCJEUmuzzle lawJarosław Kaczyńskielections 2020Beata MorawiecFirst President of the Supreme CourtprosecutorsHungaryEuropean Court of Human RightsEuropean Arrest WarrantMateusz MorawieckiAdam BodnarCOVID-19Kamil Zaradkiewiczdisciplinary commissionerPresidentfreedom of expressioncriminal lawOSCEPaweł JuszczyszynNational Public Prosecutorcriminal proceedingsPrime MinisterExtraordinary Control and Public Affairs ChamberProsecutor GeneralSupreme Administrative CourtconditionalityConstitutionCriminal ChamberLaw and JusticeprosecutionNCJNational ProsecutorelectionsMałgorzata Gersdorfacting first president of the Supreme CourtOrdo IurisMay 10 2020 electionsWaldemar Żurekmedia independenceAmsterdam District CourtKrzysztof ParchimowiczMaciej NawackiEAWmediaimmunityAnna DalkowskaPiotr SchabPrzemysław RadzikCouncil of Europe2017freedom of assemblyJulia PrzyłębskaFreedom HouseVenice CommissionEU budgetWłodzimierz WróbelPM Mateusz MorawieckiAndrzej StępkaMinistry of JusticeC-791/19disciplinary liability for judgesNational Electoral CommissionWojciech HermelińskiStanisław PiotrowiczAndrzej ZollMarek SafjanGeneral Assembly of the Supreme Court JudgesAleksander StepkowskiPresident of PolandJarosław GowinLGBTLGBT ideology free zonesSejmMichał LasotaZuzanna Rudzińska-BluszczSylwia Gregorczyk-AbramdefamationTHEMISTVPLex Super OmniaAdam TomczyńskiBelgiumNetherlandsBogdan Święczkowskidemocratic backslidingViktor OrbandecommunizationNext Generation EUvetopoliceJózef IwulskiLaw on the NCJJustice Defence Committee – KOSLech GarlickirecommendationHuman Rights CommissionerCCBEThe Council of Bars and Law Societies of Europepublic opinion pollSupreme Court Presidentreportmedia freedomArticle 7European ParliamentZiobroconditionality mechanismMichał LaskowskiMarek Pietruszyńskihuman rightsEuropean Association of Judges11 January March in WarsawcoronavirusPiSresolution of 23 January 2020Piotr PszczółkowskiJarosław WyrembakLeon KieresPKWinfringment actionEU valuesENCJlex NGOcivil societyRussiaIsraelforeign agents lawOrganization of Security and Co-operation in EuropeFirst President of the Suprme CourtPresident of the Republic of PolandLGBT free zonesequalityChamber of Extraordinary Verificationhate crimeshate speechcriminal codeGrzęda v PolandXero Flor w Polsce Sp. z o.o. v. PolandBroda and Bojara v PolandŻurek v PolandSobczyńska and Others v PolandReczkowicz and Others v. PolandRafał Trzaskowskimedia lawIustitiaKrystian MarkiewiczPrzemysła RadzikSenateMarcin WarchołElżbieta KarskaMarcin RomanowskiJacek CzaputowiczPrzemysław Czarneklegislative practiceENAZbigniew BoniekcourtsOmbudsmanKraśnikNorwayNorwegian fundsNorwegian Ministry of Foreign AffairsMichał WawrykiewiczFree CourtsC-487/19Article 6 ECHRArticle 10 ECHRRegional Court in AmsterdamOpenbaar MinisterieUrsula von der LeyenEwa WrzosekAK judgmentSimpson judgmentEU law primacyForum Współpracy Sędziówpublic broadcastermutual trustLMIrelandIrena MajcherAmsterdamthe Regional Court in WarsawUnited Nationsjudcial independenceLeszek MazurMaciej Miterapopulisminterim measuresOLAFautocratizationMultiannual Financial Frameworkabortion rulingequal treatmentabortionprotestsfundamental rightsthe NetherlandsDenmarkSwedenFinlandMariusz KrasońCT PresidentGermanyCelmerC354/20 PPUC412/20 PPUAusl 301 AR 104/19Karlsruheact on misdemeanoursCivil Service ActParliamentary Assembly of the Council of EuropeEUStanisław BiernatTeresa Dębowska-RomanowskaWhite PaperKazimierz DziałochalustrationMirosław Granattransitional justiceAdam JamrózStefan JaworskiBiruta Lewaszkiewicz-PetrykowskaWojciech ŁączkowskiEwa ŁętowskaMarek MazurkiewiczAndrzej MączyńskiJanusz NiemcewiczMałgorzata Pyziak- SzafnickaStanisław RymarFerdynand RymarzAndrzej RzeplińskiJerzy Stępień2018Piotr TulejaNations in TransitSławomira Wronkowska-JaśkiewiczCouncil of the EUMirosław WyrzykowskiBohdan ZdziennickiMarek Zubikmedia taxStanisław Zabłockiadvertising taxmediabezwyboruJacek KurskiKESMAIndex.huTelex.huJelenJózsef SzájerDidier ReyndersKlubrádióSLAPPLIBE CommitteeStrategic Lawsuits Against Public ParticipationFrans TimmermansGazeta WyborczaOKO.pressUS Department of StatePollitykaBrussels IRome IISwieczkowskiArticle 2Forum shoppingadvocate generalDariusz ZawistowskitransparencyEuropean Economic and Social Committeepress releaseSebastian KaletaRights and Values ProgrammeC-156/21C-157/21C-619/18Marek Piertuszyńskidefamatory statementsWorld Justice Project awardNational Prosecutor’s Officeintimidation of dissentersWojciech SadurskiBogdan ŚwiączkowskiDisicplinary ChamberjudgeTribunal of StatetransferK 3/21PechOlsztyn courtKochenovPrzemysła CzarnekEvgeni TanchevEducation MinisterPiotr GąciarekFreedom in the WorldKrystyna PawłowiczECJIpsosFrackowiakretirement ageAmnesty InternationalŁukasz PiebiakPiebiak gatetrans-Atlantic valuesLSOlawyersAct of 20 December 2019repressive actKoen LenaertsharrassmentAlina CzubieniakJustice FundGerard BirgfellerEwa Maciejewskapostal votepostal vote bill